Tag Archives: masks

How superspreading is fueling the pandemic – Vox

>6 Minute Podcast: What We Should Learn From The White House Coronavirus Cluster : NPR

“Any one of us could unknowingly be a superspreader.”

View full story at Source: >How superspreading is fueling the pandemic – Vox

“We now know that, on average, most people with the novel coronavirus pass the virus to just one other person, or to no one else at all. But some go on to infect many, many more, often before they even experience symptoms. Many of these transmission chains begin with “superspreading” events, where one person (usually in a crowded indoor space) passes the virus to dozens of others. Early contact tracing studies suggest these events have been a large driver of transmission around the world. By some estimates, 10 percent of people have been causing 80 percent of new infections. This is one of the reasons experts worry about large indoor gatherings— more so than outdoor ones — causing large spikes in case numbers.

Why is the coronavirus so good at superspreading? Find out at source link above.

“Some individuals seem to develop higher amounts of the virus in their system, upping their odds of transmitting it to others. And given that the amount of virus in the body tends to shift over the duration of infection — rising until around the onset of symptoms, then declining — the chance that someone is a likely superspreader changes over time.

“But what we have been learning is how individuals’ behavior could increase the chance they spread the virus to many others — or not. “We do know that wearing masks, keeping up physical distancing, avoiding crowds, and isolating upon becoming sick or testing positive can prevent superspreading,”

Figure A shows a large superspreading event that spiraled out from a cluster of bars in Hong Kong. Epidemiology

“These findings line up with other preliminary research that calculated closed environments to be almost 20 times more likely to spur additional coronavirus infections than open-air ones. There was concern that the massive protests across the US, which started in late May after the killing of George Floyd, would become superspreading events. So far the data suggests that wasn’t the case, with no large surge in cases in cities that had the largest demonstrations.

“This lines up with the science. “Outdoor events like the protests are inherently less risky than indoor events, given greater airflow (outside),” “It is also easier to spread out and maintain physical distancing.” And photographs of the protests have shown that a large number of people have been wearing masks. Still, no massive gathering is guaranteed to stay Covid-19-free. “There will still be increased risk of transmission given the large number of people present,” she says. It also appears that not all indoor venues and events are equally risky when it comes to starting a large cluster of new cases.

“A first step is following the lead of infectious disease experts, who know well what potential superspreading situations to avoid. “I might dine outside, if the tables were spaced apart, and I felt like the customers and restaurant staff were taking precautions.” Earlier this summer, she went camping with her family, but she chose campgrounds following CDC guidelines. “For other places, like parks and beaches, my advice is to be prepared to leave if they get crowded and you cannot safely distance,” she says.

Altruism Quotes

One Chart Shows The Best And Worst Face Mask Types, Based on The Latest Research

Does Wearing a Mask Protect Me? Some Evidence Says Yes – The New York Times

Growing Body Of Evidence Suggests Masks Protect Those Wearing Them, Too : NPR

Mask Hack: How to Create a More Form-Fitting Level 3 Mask

A User’s Guide To Masks: What Types Offer The Best Protection? : Goats and Soda : NPR

There’s one mask type you really should avoid.

Read full story of excerpts below at Source: >One Chart Shows The Best And Worst Face Mask Types, Based on The Latest Research

“Disposable surgical masks are also made of non-woven fabric. A 2013 study found that surgical masks were about three times as effective at blocking influenza aerosols than homemade face masks (that was true, at least, when air flow was slower than a cough but faster than a human breathing during light work).

“Mask studies should be taken with a grain of salt

“Although research is coalescing around the idea that a few types of masks offer the best protection, it’s not always easy to simulate how a mask will perform in real life. That’s because only some tests directly mimic the size of novel coronavirus particles, while others evaluate performance based on viruses like influenza. Researchers also still aren’t sure about the degree to which the virus gets transmitted via aerosols, since those tiny particles are extremely hard to trap and study without killing the virus.

“Some scientists even have different ideas of what constitutes an aerosol – the generally accepted cutoff is less than 5 microns (that’s roughly the size of a dust particle) – and many experts think the delineation is arbitrary altogether.

“Different studies also test masks under different circumstances: Some mimic the heavy air flow produced when a person coughs, while others mimic the air flow when a person is talking or breathing normally. And of course, masks perform differently depending on how they’re worn. That’s why it’s better to stick with more protection over less.

Continue full story at source link above.

Carrie Ryan Quote: “You stay safe, You love. You survive. You laugh and cry and struggle and sometimes you fail and sometimes you succeed. You Push.”

Pros and Cons of Shields for Protection from COVID-19

Are face shields more effective protection against the coronavirus than face masks? AARP asked the experts to explain the pros and cons of each.

Read full story of excerpts below at Source: >Pros and Cons of Shields for Protection from COVID-19

“One of the benefits of face shields is that they protect the entire face, including the eyes, which along with the nose and mouth can be a gateway for the coronavirus and other germs to enter the body. The plastic panel that hangs from the top of the forehead and extends below the chin prevents large respiratory droplets that are thought to carry the virus from reaching these areas of potential infection. Face shields also reduce the likelihood that you’ll introduce virus-packed particles on your own …They keep you from touching “your hands to your eyes and nose and mouth. If you’re wearing one, it’s pretty hard to do that” 

“A recent JAMA report found that when community health workers added face shields to other protective equipment (face masks and gloves), COVID-19 infection rates among the workers dropped to zero. Similar findings have been published in The Lancet: Researchers looked at studies evaluating the effectiveness of nonpharmacologic interventions and found that eye protection was associated with a lower risk of virus infection. “Eye protection is typically underconsidered and can be effective in community settings,” the report’s authors write.

It’s double protection,” Perencevich says about layering a face shield over a cloth face covering. “The face shield will protect the mask from being contaminated and then block additional droplets from your whole face, including your eyes.”

Continue full story with pros and cons at source link above.

Double Check Quote - (With Picture)

VIDEO: How To Protect Yourself From Coronavirus That Can Linger In The Air : Goats and Soda : NPR

Scientists say it’s increasingly clear that airborne virus particles help the coronavirus superspread. Here’s what they recommend to reduce the risks.

Full story of excerpts below at Source: >VIDEO: How To Protect Yourself From Coronavirus That Can Linger In The Air : Goats and Soda : NPR

In some settings — especially poorly ventilated indoor rooms where many people are gathering — researchers increasingly believe that clouds of the virus expelled when someone speaks are able to stay aloft in the air and potentially infect people farther away than the recommended 6 feet of social distance.

In these settings, an infectious person shouting or laughing or coughing can release clouds containing the virus that can build up, linger and waft in the air — and then be inhaled by passersby and settle in their lungs.

You limit aerosol transmission by increasing ventilation and increasing air circulation,” says Seema Lakdawala, a flu researcher at University of Pittsburgh, which means opening the windows that surround you and putting fans in them, facing inward, to draw outside air in. That fresh air will scatter any clouds of virus that might exist. That way, you’re less likely to breathe in a big infectious dose.

When you can, move your get-together outside to a location where fresh air is all around you — a backyard, for example. Lakdawala’s neighborhood hosts happy hours, “where everybody brings a lawn chair and we sit on someone’s lawn. Everyone is spatially distanced and brings their own drink.”

Much of this is common knowledge by now, but make sure you wear your mask correctly — making sure that it fits snugly over your nose and mouth while not obstructing your ability to breathe — and that you keep a personal space bubble of at least 6 feet between you and other people.

The mask will catch a lot of the droplets that come out when you speak or laugh or cough — and also block some of other people’s droplets from getting into your nose and mouth.

Continue with full story at source link above.

Why Children Should Wear Face Masks | Duke Health

CDC guidance does NOT imply immunity to coronavirus for 3 months. All channels of today’s news snap judged the CDC guidance comments.

What??? I turned on the TV news this morning and they were all happy to state new reports from the CDC that we get 3 months free ride from coronavirus after quarantine!

“The CDC clarified on Friday that people who are infected with the coronavirus are not immune to reinfection in the following three months.

Full story of excerpts below at Source: >CDC guidance does not imply immunity to coronavirus for 3 months

  • “The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clarified on Friday that its updated quarantine guidance does not imply people who are infected with the coronavirus are immune to reinfection.
  • It was reported in the news about CDC guidelines on quarantining, updated on Aug. 3, (seemed to) indicate that people who were once infected with the coronavirus are protected from reinfection for at least three months afterward.
  • The agency said it simply suggests retesting someone in the following three months after their initial infection is unnecessary unless that person shows symptoms that can’t be associated with another illness.

“Contrary to media reporting today, this science does not imply a person is immune to reinfection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in the 3 months following infection,” the CDC said in a statement.

I think this shows how easy it is for the public (and pundits) who do not carefully, logically approach science and data continually misinterpret the facts.

Continue with full story at source link above.

 

That's My Story & I'm Sticking To It – Usefully Useless Information

 

 

Why Herd Immunity Won’t Save Us : Short Wave : NPR

>Fact Check: Johns Hopkins Graph Misinterpreted, Shared With Claim Of Herd Immunity Attained In USA Against COVID-19

>Coronavirus Today: The costs of herd immunity – Los Angeles Times

>Dr. Fauci On COVID ‘Herd Immunity’ | Moms.com

>Herd Immunity to COVID-19 Fails to Materialize in Sweden

“This pandemic has upended our world. It’s cost millions of people their jobs, closed schools, taken a lot of lives. It’s had such a huge effect in such a short period of time, so it’s understandable that many people comfort themselves by thinking this will pass; sooner or later, this virus will just go away.

13 minute podcast and Read full story of excerpts below at Source: >Why Herd Immunity Won’t Save Us : Short Wave : NPR

as good as herd immunity might look on paper, the real world is turning out to be a lot more complicated. All over the globe, millions are being infected, but the coronavirus is still here… “I think it’s going to be with us probably forever at this point. I mean, at a global scale, it’s going to be with us, and it’s how we decide to live with it… “herd immunity – what it is, why it became so popular in this pandemic and why it probably just isn’t going to happen.

“as soon as governments start floating these ideas of letting the virus pass through the population, scientists start projecting astronomical death counts that would result. And so herd immunity as an official policy basically dies before it ever gets started. There is just no way politically to embrace the strategy

“But the idea of natural herd immunity doesn’t really die. And this is what I find interesting. There’s still this sort of idea that somehow, the virus will eventually just vanish. And you’ve been hearing this a lot in recent weeks

Sweden never officially pursued a herd immunity approach, but they got kind of as close as any country has. They had this really light lockdown. They limited gatherings to 50 people or less, kept everything open with minor restrictions, like table-only seating at restaurants. And in the spring, Swedish officials were bragging that Stockholm might effectively reach herd immunity by the end of May.

Blood tests showed not that many people in Sweden have been infected with the coronavirus. It’s maybe 5%. And for natural herd immunity for this virus, that number has to reach more like 50% to 80%. Meanwhile, Sweden has had higher death rates than its Nordic neighbors like Norway, and their economy is suffering badly. So this has not worked well in practice.

Continue with full story at source link above.

485 Best Spiritual quotes by AiR images in 2020 | Spiritual quotes ...

Does Wearing a Mask Protect Me? Some Evidence Says Yes – The New York Times

>13 min podcast Wearing A Mask Could Be Even More Important Than We Thought : NPR One

People wearing face coverings will take in fewer coronavirus particles, evidence suggests, making disease less severe.

Full story of excerpts below at Source >Masks May Reduce Viral Dose, Some Experts Say

“as cases continue to rise across the country, experts are pointing to an array of evidence suggesting that masks also protect the people wearing them, lessening the severity of symptoms, or in some instances, staving off infection entirely.

“two researchers formally noted that mice exposed to larger quantities of germs were more likely to die. More recently, scientists have gone as far as to puff different amounts of a flu virus up the noses of human volunteers. The more virus in this nasal plume, they found, the likelier the participants were to get infected and experience symptoms.

Continue full story at source link above

Love this quote. We have a shared responsibility to protect ...

 

Watch Out for Little Superspreaders. Children May Carry Coronavirus at High Levels, Study Finds – The New York Times

>Risk of COVID-19 for kids: “The science is constantly evolving,” doctors say – CBS News

>97,000 children reportedly test positive for COVID-19 as schools gear up for instruction – CBS News

>Black And Hispanic Children At Risk For ‘Severe’ COVID-19 Symptoms, CDC Finds : NPR

Continue reading from excerpts below at source: >Children May Carry Coronavirus at High Levels, Study Finds

“Infected children have at least as much of the coronavirus in their noses and throats as infected adults, according to the research. Indeed, children younger than age 5 may host up to 100 times as much of the virus in the upper respiratory tract as adults, the authors found.” (And its hard to keep them wearing masks)

“But one takeaway from this is that we can’t assume that just because kids aren’t getting sick, or very sick, that they don’t have the virus…experts were alarmed to learn that young children may carry significant amounts of the coronavirus.

The results are consistent with those from a German study of 47 infected children between the ages 1 and 11, which showed that children who did not have symptoms had viral loads as high as adults’, or higher. And a recent study from France found that asymptomatic children had C.T. values similar to those of children with symptoms. C.T. values are a reasonable proxy for the amount of coronavirus present, said Dr. Kindrachuk, who relied on this metric during the Ebola outbreaks in West Africa.

Continue full story at source link above.

An Inspiring List of Kindness Quotes For Kids » AllWording.com

 

 

Scientists Test Which Masks Work Best by Filming People Coughing And Sneezing in Them

The results are clear, surgical masks are superior

>Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks

Full story of excerpts below at Source: >Scientists Test Which Masks Work Best by Filming People Coughing And Sneezing in Them

A surgical mask was the most effective at blocking droplets and aerosols from talking, coughing and sneezing. But if you can’t get hold of one, a cloth mask is the next best thing, and the more layers the better.

We confirmed that even speaking generates substantial droplets. Coughing and sneezing (in that order) generate even more.

In practice, we don’t yet know which has a greater effect — wearing masks to prevent infected people spreading to others or protecting well people from inhaling infected aerosols. Probably both are equally important.

Continue reading full story at source link above

The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others.”
– Mahatma Gandhi

People Wearing DIY Masks

Growing Body Of Evidence Suggests Masks Protect Those Wearing Them, Too : NPR

>A User’s Guide To Masks: What Types Offer The Best Protection? NPR

>Bioethicist On Libertarian Views Toward Face Mask Laws

“NPR’s Ailsa Chang talks with Dr. Monica Gandhi of the University of California, San Francisco, about growing evidence that masks help lower the severity of the coronavirus for those who wear them.

Full story of excerpts below at source: >Growing Body Of Evidence Suggests Masks Protect Those Wearing Them, Too : NPR

“…they really are protective of you as an individual. And sort of putting it all together, it really is that the less virus that you get in, the less sick you’re likely to be. So not only do masks protect you – and we’ve seen from getting the virus and altogether.

“And that’s been seen in hamster studies. That’s been seen in a health care worker study that was just published last week in JAMA. But if you do get the virus in, you get very little in. And you’re likely to get what’s called an asymptomatic infection or not have any symptoms at all and – or a very mild infection.

it really looks like any country that has adopted universal mask wearing – and many, many countries have – even as they open up and they’re seeing each other more and there’s more cases, it has led to much, much fewer deaths or severe illness. So the idea about this virus is it’s completely bizarre how it can cause no symptoms in some people and very, very severe symptoms in others…even in settings where there are outbreaks but everyone masked, there’s, like, a 95% rate of not having symptoms at all

Continue full story at source link above.

“The “Boxes” are the walls in your mind.” — Pearl Zhu

NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Black Canyon of The Gunnison National Park ...

Face Shields and Coronavirus Spread 

“While surgical and cloth face masks have been the standard choice amid the pandemic thus far, plastic face shields have started to rise in popularity.

Full Story of excerpts below at Source: >Are Face Shields or Face Masks More Effective at Preventing Coronavirus Spread? | PEOPLE.com

“When asked whether they work as well as more traditional face masks, Dr. David Edwards of Harvard University tells PEOPLE that there are “pros and cons” to the plastic coverings. Although they’re “particularly effective” at preventing large airborne respiratory droplets — which could result from a person nearby coughing or sneezing — they don’t do as good of a job with blocking smaller particles, as face shields don’t completely seal off the face. With smaller particles, they don’t travel like bullets, they hover in the air and below that face shield you’re still breathing in that air,” Edwards says.

“However, while face shields can be helpful, and certainly won’t hurt individuals who choose to use them, Edwards still recommends wearing masks — either alone, or in conjunction with the plastic coverings.

Continue full story at source link above.

>Popular Face Shield on Amazon

ArtToFrames SH-G-CLEAR-2-2 Clear This is a face Shield, 2 Pack, 2 Count

 

 

Covid-19 cases by age: Why more young people are getting sick – Vox

Mixed public health messages and misunderstandings of risk haven’t helped.

Full Story at Source: >Covid-19 cases by age: Why more young people are getting sick – Vox

“Nationwide, “the average age of people getting infected is now a decade and a half younger than it was a few months ago,” Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, said in a July 6 press briefing.

This seems to already be happening, with assisted living facility cases climbing in Houston and Phoenix, as well as in Florida now. “We first see it in the community, and then we see it in the residents and staff, and then you see the deaths,” David Grabowski, a health care policy expert at Harvard Medical School, told the Wall Street Journal.

“A higher percentage of young people — and a lower percentage of elderly people — getting infected could seem like a good thing. For one, it should mean fewer deaths. It also should mean less strain on the health care system and its workers. But in the states with larger outbreaks, including Arizona and Texas, hospitals are already getting overwhelmed with young and old alike.

“The social isolation of shutdowns also seems to be taking a much higher psychological toll on younger than older adults, and is potentially driving them to gather in risky indoor settings. A CDC study in May found that nearly half of all 18- to 29-year-olds surveyed had been feeling at least some symptoms of anxiety or depression — a higher proportion than for other age groups (which was closer to one-third for those 30 to 59). (The CDC now also offers specific guidance for teens and young adults who might be struggling.)

Read much more at source link above.

“It is only when I am alone that I really feel connected to the entire universe.”
― Nurudeen Ushawu

The wonderful mountain skyline of Austria, partly hidden in clouds and mist.

Here’s Why You Shouldn’t Go To A ‘Covid Party’ or ANY Party

“A 30 year old male died after recently attending a ‘Covid party’ in San Antonio, Texas. The motivation for holding such parties appears to be a curiosity if the virus is real, and to see if anyone gets infected.

>Wikipedia on Coronavirus party

See Full Story at Source: >Here’s Why You Shouldn’t Go To A ‘Covid Party’

“Do you still believe that SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for Covid-19, is a hoax? Well a 30 year old male in San Antonio, Texas who recently attended a “Covid party” believing that the virus might be a hoax is now dead. He reportedly told nurses before he died this week at Methodist Hospital in San Antonio, “I think I made a mistake. I thought this was a hoax, but it’s not.”

“Dr. Jane Appleby, the Chief Medical Officer for Methodist Hospital and Methodist Children’s Hospital, released a statement indicating that the man had attended a gathering with an infected individual to determine if the coronavirus was real. He wanted to see whether he could get infected after attending the event. Appleby shared the story as a warning to others throughout the US, where coronavirus cases are surging in a majority of states:

“The basis for holding Covid parties, so the thinking goes, is similar to the concept of holding a “chicken pox party” in order to get the disease and just “get it over with,” in order to gain immunity. But the two diseases are quite different and “getting it over with” likely holds a higher degree of uncertainty with respect to Covid-19.

“The CDC has warned that people infected with the coronavirus should not attend gatherings or parties. Simply put, any event where people do not practice social distancing and do not consistently wear face coverings represent significant risk for transmission. Such is also the case with congregating at bars— due to alcohol’s ability to reduce inhibitions, encouraging people to gather closer while speaking, spreading virus-laden droplets which may become airborne, existing as aerosols for up to 3 hours.

Continue with full story at source link above.

Mask Hack: How to Create a More Form-Fitting Level 3 Mask

“Wearing a mask in public is basically the norm these days (or at least, it should be). But let’s be real, surgical masks aren’t perfect. Namely, they can have a loose fit and allow potentially infected particles to get to your nose and mouth.

See also story at source: >This 60-Second Hack To Make Your Face Mask Fit Better

  • Fold your mask in half
  • Tie a knot with the ear loops on each side as close as possible to the mask
  • Open up your mask
  • There will be a little opening on the sides next to the ear loop, so tuck that in underneath the ear loops on each side
  • Wear your (better-fitting) mask

 

Texas Doctors Create Coronavirus Activity Risk Guide: ‘The Public Needs More Directed Guidance’ – CBS Dallas / Fort Worth

The Texas Medical Association put together a guide to help people navigate the pandemic with a 1-9 scale that measures the risk from low to high.

Read full story at Source: >Texas Doctors Create Coronavirus Activity Risk Guide: ‘The Public Needs More Directed Guidance’ – CBS Dallas / Fort Worth

>PDF Guide Chart

“A group of Texas doctors have created a guide to help people measure the risk of COVID-19 from nearly 40 daily activities.  the guide focused on 37 activities covering everything from hugs and handshakes to attending stadium-sized events. They are ranked as a guide to help people decide which ones elevate the danger of contracting COVID-19.

“The lowest risk on the 1-9 scale comes from opening mail which some people worry will carry the virus. Grocery shopping, restaurant take out and activities like jogging, golf and tennis are all considered low risk. But hair salons, dine in restaurants, air travel, fitness centers and even hugs or handshakes are ranked as moderately high risk or above. Engaging in contact sports and visiting a movie theater are also identified as a lot less safe than sitting in a doctors waiting room or swimming in a public pool.

Continue with full story at source link above

Coronavirus can float in air — and experts say WHO and CDC should tell people that | KTLA

>NPR 10 minute podcast: Scientists Debate How Coronavirus Spreads, Experts Push For Mask Mandate

>The Scientists Debate: Is COVID-19 transmitted by airborne aerosols?

>Major News Outlets: Is COVID Airborne? 239 Scientists Say Evidence Shows It Is, Urge WHO, CDC To Alter Recommendations

“Most public health organizations, including the World Health Organization, do not recognize airborne transmission except for aerosol-generating procedures performed in healthcare settings. Hand washing and social distancing are appropriate, but in our view, insufficient to provide protection from virus-carrying respiratory microdroplets released into the air by infected people,”

‘They don’t want to talk about airborne transmission because that is going to make people afraid’

Read full story at Source: >Coronavirus can float in air — and experts say WHO and CDC should tell people that | KTLA

“Studies by the signatories and other scientists have demonstrated beyond any reasonable doubt that viruses are released during exhalation, talking, and coughing in microdroplets small enough to remain aloft in air and pose a risk of exposure at distances beyond 1 to 2 meters (yards) from an infected individual,”

“For example, at typical indoor air velocities, a 5 nanometre droplet will travel tens of meters, much greater than the scale of a typical room, while settling from a height of 1.5 metres (about five feet) to the floor.” What’s not clearly understood is how important droplet size is to coronavirus transmission,

“A lot of people crowded close together indoors where it is poorly ventilated — that is what drives the pandemic,” … A loud bar, where people must raise their voices to be heard, is a perfect storm of close contact, poor air circulation and people generating a lot of virus-carrying particles by talking, laughing and shouting.

Advice to avoid coronavirus transmission:

“I am very much concerned about the general public and schools and ventilation in school buildings and in dorms on college campuses and in bars and in churches and where people sing and where people congregate,” 

• Provide sufficient and effective ventilation (supply clean outdoor air, minimize recirculating air) particularly in public buildings, workplace environments, schools, hospitals and age care homes.

• Supplement general ventilation with airborne infection controls such as local exhaust, high efficiency air filtration, and germicidal ultraviolet lights. (These would be placed high up in the ceiling to avoid damage to people’s eyes and skin)

• Avoid overcrowding, particularly in public transport and public buildings.

“Such measures are practical and often can be easily implemented; many are not costly, For example, simple steps such as opening both doors and windows can dramatically increase air flow rates in many buildings…In buildings, carbon dioxide monitors can help managers know if the air is being refreshed properly.

“In a car, open windows and make sure the air conditioning or heat is not recirculated but set to include outside air.

Continue reading full story at source link above.

A User’s Guide To Masks: What Types Offer The Best Protection? : Goats and Soda : NPR

They’re made of cotton. Or polyester. Or paper. Or polypropylene. Here’s what researchers say about the effectiveness of the different types of face masks during this pandemic.

>Widespread Use Of Face Masks Could Save Tens Of Thousands Of Lives, Models Project

>Fabric Masks Need 3 Specific Layers to Effectively Block Coronavirus, WHO Says

>Visualization shows exactly how face masks stop COVID-19 transmission

Read full story at source: >A User’s Guide To Masks: What Types Offer The Best Protection? : Goats and Soda : NPR

“Face masks can also offer the wearer some protection — though how much varies greatly, depending on the type of mask. No mask will offer full protection, and they should not be viewed as a replacement for physical distancing of at least 6 feet from others, frequent hand-washing and avoiding crowds. When you combine masks with those measures, they can make a big difference.

“…consider the fabric itself. The tightness of the weave is really important. … To check your fabric, hold it up to a light: If you can easily see the outline of the individual fibers, it’s not going to make a great filter. Researchers say a thick 100% cotton weave is a good bet. That’s because at the microscopic level, the natural fibers in cotton tend to have more three-dimensional structure than synthetic fibers, which are smoother…That 3D structure can create more roadblocks that can stop an incoming particle

“Think multiple layers. Several studies have found that masks made of multiple layers are more effective at blocking small particles. A good option: a mask made of two layers of a thick-weave fabric with a built-in pocket where you can place a filter...The best bet for the material to slip in as a filter is polypropylene, which is derived from plastic.. “If you go to Walmart, you look for Oly-fun, which is the brand name of that fabric. It’s also called spunbond

“polypropylene is great as a physical filter but has another benefit: It holds an electrostatic charge. In other words, it uses the power of static electricity. Think of the static cling that can happen when you rub two pieces of fabric together, …That’s basically what’s happening with this fabric: That “cling” effect traps incoming — and outgoing — droplets. “That’s what you want — the cling is what’s important…And unlike other materials, polypropylene keeps its electrostatic charge in the humidity created when you breathe out

“Avoid masks with exhalation valves. Some cloth and disposable masks come with an exhalation valve at the front. The valve makes it easier to breathe out, but it also releases unfiltered air, so it doesn’t protect others if you’re contagious. And protecting others is the primary reason to wear a mask.

Continue reading much more of full story at link above.

 

A Nation Of Magical Thinkers | Blog For Iowa

I first heard the term “magical thinking” on ‘What you need to know” ABC news daily series yesterday from Dr. Jenifer Ashton. The term is a medical term in psychology to describe illogical thought patterns which ignores new evidence that challenges current non-scientific theories that are really beliefs. — DH

Full story at Source: >A Nation Of Magical Thinkers | Blog For Iowa

“COVID-19 has revealed our societal failure to understand what evidence is and to respect how it works. National and local political leaders have made decisions that ignored the evidence. Members of the general public have proved slow to accept the evidence. Measures adopted to help flatten the curve have been met with virulent protests, despite the evidence that they are working.”

“We have become a nation of magical thinkers, making decisions based on what we hope is the case and whom we want to believe.  When confronted with opposing evidence, we do not engage with it. We dismiss it and stick a label on it: “fake,” “phony,” “biased,” etc. And then we mistake that label for evidence.”

 

New amendment? Right to selfish ignorance: Arizonans see big jump in coronavirus cases, but don’t see reason to wear masks

Arizonans see big jump in coronavirus cases, but don’t see reason to wear masks

View video news report and full story at Source: >Arizona seeing big jump in coronavirus cases – CNN

“Tempe, Arizona (CNN) Walking along the streets this week in Tempe, Arizona, it was rare to see anyone wearing a mask. Patrons at a bar packed the entire space, as if the pandemic had suddenly dissipated. This despite the news that the state is one of the growing coronavirus hotspots in the country.

“The Arizona Department of Health Sciences on Friday announced there were 3,246 new Covid-19 cases, a record number reported on one day.
Arizona was one of the first states to reopen but the impact of the virus is everywhere in Tempe as some businesses are still shut down.

“When asked why he wasn’t wearing a mask, he replied, “I think masks are good, but they act as a placebo. I have family personally lost to coronavirus, so like, I should be wearing a mask, but not when I’m out with my friends.”

“Please keep yourself and your family safe. Always wear a mask in public even if you do not feel sick. Maintain physical distancing. Let’s work together to slow the spread of COVID-19. #MaskUpAZ,” the Arizona Department of Health Sciences said in a tweet on Friday. Phoenix has ordered residents to wear masks, one of more than a dozen cities across the state to announce local mask ordinances.

“Alarmed by the rapid increase in cases, more than 3,000 doctors and nurses sent a letter to Gov. Doug Ducey this week urging him to mandate masks. Ducey said he would not order a state mandate, instead leaving it up to local governments.

“To tell the whole world that basically I’m a social Darwinist if you die, I don’t care, I just want my beer and burger is, is really … I mean even kindergarteners have more empathy for other people.”

Fabric Masks Need 3 Specific Layers to Effectively Block Coronavirus, WHO Says


>Infographics: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) advice for the public: When and how to use masks

>Q&A: Masks and COVID-19

>How The Widespread Mask Use Could Slow The Coronavirus Pandemic

>Application of nanofibers to improve the filtration efficiency of the most penetrating aerosol particles in fibrous filters

New mask guidelines from WHO revealed.

Full story of excerpts below at Source: >Fabric Masks Need 3 Specific Layers to Effectively Block Coronavirus, WHO Says

“The guidelines, set to be released today, detail the type of fabric masks that are effective. They should have three layers: an inner layer that absorbs, a middle layer that acts as a filter, and an outer layer made from a non-absorbent material like polyester.

“Those layers in that order can “provide a mechanistic barrier,” … The guidance… is based on “new, novel research” commissioned by the WHO.

Fabric masks should also be cleaned and worn correctly, since contaminated hands can infect a person adjusting their mask or frequently taking it on or off, 

The specifics of how to wear and clean them will be included in the soon-to-be-released guidance….And the organisation continues to emphasise that masks alone cannot defeat the coronavirus, and can lead to a false sense of security leading people to slack on other important prevention measures.

COVID-19 Is Likely Airborne, Aerosol Scientist Says


Something has been bothering Kimberly Prather, PhD: everything she reads about COVID-19 points to a pathogen that travels through the air.

>Reducing transmission of Coronavirus, AAAS Science
(Sars-CoV-2 is the latest Coronavirus)

Full story of excerpts below on Medscape at Source: >COVID-19 Is Likely Airborne, Aerosol Scientist Says

A lot of the evidence has been pointing to aerosol transmission of respiratory viruses,”  Influenza can be passed through the air, as can the virus that causes SARS. “This particular virus, a lot of evidence is mounting. ..she’s been alarmed not to see the CDC or WHO come out with a strong statement that people could catch COVID-19 by breathing it in.

“…masks can play a major role in stopping that transmission. When you sing, the amount of droplets and aerosol that come out is really, in some respects, scary…When a person coughs or sneezes, they generate large droplets laden with viral particles. Those droplets are heavy and fall to the ground or a nearby surface pretty quickly, within seconds. They are still somewhat wet and sticky when they land.

“That’s where the 6-foot rule comes in… It’s based on studies of respiratory droplets conducted in the 1930s. Aerosols…can accumulate, remain infectious in indoor air for hours, and be easily inhaled deeply into the lungs this is a scary thing to be telling people. “I hesitate. I don’t want to freak people out.” She also believes knowledge is power.

“I have to say something because this could actually protect people,” she says. What airborne transmission means, she says, is that 6 feet is not far enough to stand apart. It also means we should probably be wearing masks a lot more often.

Health Safety Tips For When It’s Time To Emerge From Lockdowns : NPR


>How Is The Federal Government Doing At Guiding A Smart Reopening?

6 minute podcast and full page of below excerpts at Source: >Health Safety Tips For When It’s Time To Emerge From Lockdowns : NPR

“As more states continue to ease shelter-in-place restrictions, what are the safest ways to get back out into society — whether it’s outdoors, going to church or returning to work? What are the safest ways to move around as we start to do it more? An end to lockdowns is coming. NPR’s Allison Aubrey joins us to talk through the options for going outdoors or to church or returning to work…

people are moving around more. Using cellphone location data, researchers have seen about a 20% decline in the percentage of people staying home compared to two weeks ago. And it’s also worth noting who seems to be going out most. Some new survey data out of the U.K. shows during lockdown about 50% of adolescent boys and young men – so college-aged males – acknowledge meeting up with a group of friends. And many parents in the U.S. have seen this growing restlessness.

“The data suggests that prolonged indoor contact is the riskiest. Being outside is lower risk. So over the last week or so, we’ve seen several states giving the green light to outdoor activities – exercising on the beach or in parks, tennis, golf, boating. We’re also hearing more about small gatherings in people’s yards.

“There’s better air circulation outside, more sunlight. It’s often easier to stay 6 feet away when you’re in someone’s backyard than their living room. But Carroll says it can be a slippery slope. You know, once people gather, you have to be careful about maintaining social distancing.

many cases are transmitted at home. So one way is a family member who’s an essential worker brings it home to everyone else, so really important for that essential worker, you know, to wash hands, take precautions. And the more people who gather in a home, the more risk.

“there’s very good reason we’re being asked to wear masks. … it’s impossible to say just how many infections that masks may prevent. Mostly the masks do help prevent the person wearing it from spreading the virus.  When I see someone wearing a mask, it says two things to me. They care about the people around them, and they care and respect themselves. …it’s worth pointing out the CDC is recommending that we wear them, and we’ll continue to see this as more people go back to work and perhaps on public transport. ..when people are on public transport or back at work, they’re quite likely indoors, which makes that kind of thing vital.

employers are thinking about things like screening, antibody testing. A lot of employers are scrambling, trying to come up safety measures for reopening. One idea being floated in some countries is the idea of an immunity passport or a health passport so people who have had the virus and presumably have some immunity would be identified and perhaps cleared to go to work.

“But physician Aaron Carroll says this is really not as simple as it sounds. “First of all, we should acknowledge that we don’t even understand yet how good immunity is, how long it lasts, how much it’s protective. So to start labeling people immune is really jumping the gun. We just don’t know yet.